Treaty of Lancaster, 1744

Treaty of Lancaster, 1744

In the Court-House in the Town of Lancaster, on Friday, the Twenty Second of June, 1744,

PRESENT,

The Honourable George Thomas, Esq; Lieut. Governor of the Province of Pennsylvania, and Counties of Newcastle, Kent and Sussex, on Delaware.

Commissioners of Virginia

The Honourable Thomas Lee, Esq;
Colonel William Beverly,

Commissioners of Maryland.

The Hon'ble Edmund Jennings, Esq;
Philip Thomas Esq;
Colonel Robert King,
Colonel Thomas Colville,

The Deputies of the Onandagoes, Senecas, Cayogoes, Oneidas and Tuscaroraes.

Conrad Weiser, Interpreter.

The Governor and the Commissioners took some of the Indian Chiefs by the Hand, and, after they had seated themselves, the Governor bid them welcome into the Government; and there being Wine and Punch prepared for them, the Governor and the several Commissioners drank. Health to the Six Nations; and Canassatego, Tacbanoontia, and some other Chiefs, returned the Compliments, drinking the Healths of Onas [the Governor of Pennsylvania], Assaragoa [the Governor of Virginia], and the Governor of Maryland.

After they were all served with Wine, Punch, Pipes and Tobacco, the Governor told the Indians, that as it was customary, and indeed necessary, they should have some Time to rest after so long a Journey, and as he thought three Days would be no more than sufficient for that Purpose, he proposed to speak to them on Monday next; after which, the honourable Commissioners would take their own Time to deliver what they had to say.

Canassatego answered the Governor: We thank you for giving us Time to rest; we are come to you, and shall leave it intirely to you to appoint the Time when we shall meet you again. We likewise leave it to the Governor of Maryland, by whose Invitation we came here, to appoint a Time when he will please to mention the Reason of his inviting us. As to our Brother Assaragoa, we have at this present Time nothing to say to him; not but we have a great deal to say to Assaragoa, which must be said at one Time or another; but not being satisfied whether he or we should begin first, we shall leave it wholly to our Brother Onas to adjust this between us, and to say which shall begin first.


In the Court-House at Lancaster, June 25, 1744. A. M.

PRESENT,

The Honourable George Thomas, Esq; Governor, &c.
The Honourable the Commissioners of Virginia.
The Honourable the Commissioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiser, Interpreter.

The Governor spoke as follows:

Honourable Gentlemen, Commissioners for the Governments of Virginia and Maryland, and Brethren, Sachims, or Chiefs of the Indians of the Six Nations:

At a Treaty, held by me two Years ago, in Behalf of the Government of Pennsylvania, with a Number of the Chiefs of the Indians of the Six Nations, I was desired by them to write to the Governor of Maryland concerning some Lands in the back Parts of that Province, which they claim a Right to from their Conquests over the ancient Possessors, and which have been settled by some of the Inhabitants of that Government, without their Consent, or any Purchase made from them. It was at that time understood that the Claim was upon Maryland only; but it has since appeared, by some Letters formerly wrote by Mr. President Logan to the late Governor of Maryland, that it related likewise to some Lands in the back Parts of Virginia. The Governors of those Colonies soon manifested a truly equitable Disposition to come to any reasonable Terms with the Six Nations on account of those Lands, and desired, that for that End a Time and Place might be fixed for a Treaty with them; but before this could be effected, an unfortunate skirmish happened in the back Parts of Virginia, between some of the Militia there, and a Party of the Indian Warriors of the Six Nations, with some Loss on both sides. Who were the Aggressors is not at this time to be discussed, both Parties having agreed to bury that Affair in Oblivion, and the Government of Virginia having, in Token of the Continuance of their Friendship, presented the Six Nations, through my Hands, with Goods to the Value of One Hundred Pounds sterling. To prevent further Hostilities, and to heal this Breach, I had, before the Present was given, made a Tender of my good Offices; which both Parties accepted, and consented, on my Instances, to lay down their Arms: since which the Faith pledged to me has been mutually preserved, and a Time and Place has been agreed upon, through my Intervention, for accommodating all Differences, and for settling a firm Peace, Union and Friendship, as well between the Government of Virginia as that of Maryland, and the Indians of the Six Nations. The honourable the Commissioners for these two Governments, and the Deputies of the Six Nations, are now met at the Place appointed for the Treaty. It only remains therefore for me to say, That if my further good Offices shall be thought useful for the Accomplishment of this Work, you may rely most assuredly upon them.

But I hope, honourable Gentlemen Commissioners, it will not be taken amiss if I go a little further, and briefly represent to you, how especially necessary it is at this Juncture, for his Majesty's service, and the Good of all his Colonies in this Part of his Dominions, that Peace and Friendship is established between your Governments and the Indians of the Six Nations.

These Indians, by their situation, are a Frontier to some of them; and, from thence, if Friends, are capable of defending their settlements; if Enemies, of making cruel Ravages upon them; if Neuters, they may deny the French a Passage through their Country, and give us timely Notice of their Designs. These are but some of the Motives for cultivating a good Understanding with them; but from hence the Disadvantages of a Rupture are abundantly evident. Every Advantage you gain over them in War will be a weakening of the Barrier of those Colonies, and consequently be, in effect, Victories over yourselves and your Fellow subjects. some Allowances for their Prejudices and Passions, and a Present now and then for the Relief of their Necessities, which have, in some Measure, been brought upon them by their Intercourse with us, and by our yearly extending our settlements, will probably tie them more closely to the British Interest. This has been the Method of New-York and Pennsylvania, and will not put you to so much Expence in twenty Years, as the carrying on a War against them will do in one. The French very well know the Importance of these Nations to us, and will not fail by Presents, and their other usual Arts, to take Advantage of any Misunderstandings we may have with them. But I will detain you, Gentlemen, no longer. Your own superior Knowledge will suggest to you more than I can say on this subject.

Friends and Brethern, Sachims, or Chiefs of the Indians of the Six Nations:

These, your Brethern of Virginia and Maryland, are come to enlarge the Fire, which was almost gone out, and to make it burn clearer; to brighten the Chain which had contracted some Rust, and to renew their Friendship with you; which it is their Desire may last so long as the sun, the Moon and the stars, shall give Light. Their Powers are derived from the Great King of ENGLAND, your Father; and whatever Conclusions they shall come to with you, will be as firm and binding as if the Governors of these Provinces were themselves here. I am your Brother, and, which is more, I am your true Friend. As you know, from Experience, that I am so, I will now give you a few Words of Advice. Receive these your Brethern with open Arms; unite yourselves to them in the Covenant Chain, and be you with them as one Body, and one soul. I make no doubt but the Governor of Canada has been taking Pains to widen the Breach between these your Brethren of Virginia and you; but as you cannot have forgot the Hatred the French have always borne to your Nations, and how kindly, on the contrary, you have been treated, and how faithfully you have been protected by the Great King of ENGLAND and his subjects, you will not be at a Loss to see into the Designs of that Governor. He wants to divide you from us, in order the more easily to destroy you, which he will most certainly do, if you suffer yourselves to be deluded by him.

As to what relates to the Friendship established between the Government of Pennsylvania and your Nations, I will take another Day to speak to you upon it.

To enforce what had been said, the Governor laid down a Belt of Wampum; upon which the Indians gave the Yo-hah.

After a short Pause, the Governor ordered the Interpreter to tell the Indians, that as they had greatly exceeded their appointed Time for meeting the Commissioners, he recommended to them to use all the Expedition possible in giving their Answer to what had been said, that they might forthwith proceed to treat with the respective Commissioners on the Business they came about.

Then Canassatego repeated to the Interpreter the substance of what the Governor had spoke, in order to know if he had understood him right (a Method generally made use of by the Indians) and when the Interpreter told him he had taken the true sense, Canassatego proceeded to return the Thanks of the Six Nations for the Governor's kind Advice, promising to follow it as far as lay in their Power; but as it was their Custom when a Belt was given to return another, they would take Time till the Afternoon to provide one, and would then give their Answer.


In the Court-House at Lancaster, June 25, 1744. P. M.

PRESENT,

The Honourable George Thomas, Esq; Governor, &c.
The Honourable the Commissioners of Virginia.
The Honourable the Commissioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiser, Interpreter.

Canassatego's Answer to the Governor's speech delivered in the Morning.

Brother Onas,

You spoke in the Presence of Assaragoa and the Governor of Maryland to us, advising us to receive them as our Brethren, and to unite with them in the Covenant Chain as one Body, and one soul. We have always considered them as our Brethren, and, as such, shall be willing to brighten the Chain of Friendship with them; but since there are some Disputes between respecting the Lands possessed by them, which formerly belonged to us, we, according to our Custom, propose to have those Differences first adjusted, and then we shall proceed to confirm the Friendship subsisting between us, which will meet with no Obstruction after these Matters are settled.

Here they presented the Governor with a Belt of Wampum, in return for the Belt given them in the Morning by the Governor; and the Interpreter was ordered to return the Yo-hah.

Then the Governor, in Reply, spoke as follows:

I receive your Belt with great Kindness and Affection; and as to what relates to the Governments of Virginia and Maryland, the honourable Commissioners, now present, are ready to treat with you. I shall only add, that the Goods for the Hundred Pounds sterling, put into my Hands by the Governor of Virginia, as a Token of his good Dispositions to preserve Friendship with you, are now in Town, and ready to be delivered, in consequence of what was told you by Conrad Weiser when he was last at Onandago,

THEN the Governor, turning to the Commissioners of Virginia and Maryland, said, Gentlemen, I have now finished what was incumbent upon me to say by way of Introduction to the Indians; and as you have a full Authority from your respective Governments to treat with them, I shall leave the rest intirely to you, and either stay or withdraw, as you shall think most for your service.

The Commissioners said, They were all of Opinion, it would be for their Advantage that the Governor should stay with them; and therefore they unanimously desired he would favour them with the Continuance of his Presence whilst they should be in Treaty with the Indians: Which his Honour said he would at their Instance very readily do, believing it might expedite their Business, and prevent any Jealousy the Indians might conceive at his withdrawing.

The Commissioners of Maryland ordered the Interpreter to acquaint the Indians that the Governor of Maryland was going to speak to them, and then spoke as follows:

Friends and Brethren of the united Six Nations,

We, who are deputed from the Government of Maryland by a Commission under the Great seal of that Province, now in our Hands (and which will be interpreted to you) bid you welcome; and in Token that we are very glad to see you here as Brethren, we give you this string of Wampum.

Upon which the Indians gave the Yo-hah.

When the Governor of Maryland received the first notice, about seven Years ago, of your Claim to some Lands in that Province, he thought our good Friends and Brethren of the Six Nations had little Reason to complain of any Injury from Maryland, and that they would be so well convinced thereof, on farther Deliberation, as he should hear no more of it; but you spoke of that Matter again to the Governor of Pennsylvania, about two Years since, as if you designed to terrify us.

It was very inconsiderately said by you, that you would do yourselves Justice, by going to take Payment yourselves: such an Attempt would have intirely dissolved the Chain of Friendship subsisting, not only between us, but perhaps the other English and you.

We assure you, our People, who are numerous, courageous, and have Arms ready in their Hands, will not suffer themselves to be hurt in their Lives and Estates.

But, however, the old and wise People of Maryland immediately met in Council, and upon considering very coolly your rash Expressions, agreed to invite their Brethren, the Six Nations, to this Place, that they might learn of them what Right they have to the Land in Maryland, and, if they had any, to make them some reasonable Compensation for it; therefore the Governor of Maryland has sent us to meet and treat with you about this Affair, and the brightening and strengthening the Chain which hath long subsisted between us. And as an Earnest of our sincerity and Good-will towards you, we present you with this Belt of Wampum.

On which the Indians gave the Yo-hah.

Our Great King of England, and his subjects, have always possessed the Province of Maryland free and undisturbed from any Claim of the Six Nations for above one hundred Years past, and your not saying any thing to us before, convinces us you thought you had no Pretence to any Lands in Maryland; nor can we yet find out to what Lands, or under what Title, you make your Claim: For the Sasquahannah Indians, by a Treaty above ninety Years since (which is on the Table, and will be interpreted to you) give, and yield to the English Nation, their Heirs and Assigns for ever, the greatest Part (if not all) of the Lands we possess, from Patuxent River, on the Western, as well as from Choptank River, on the Eastern side of the Great Bay of Chessapeak. And, near sixty Years ago, you acknowledged to the Governor of New-York at Albany, "That you had given your Lands, and submitted yourselves to the King of England."

We are that Great King's subjects, and we possess and enjoy the Province of Maryland by virtue of his Right and sovereignty thereto; why, then, will you stir up any Quarrel between you and ourselves, who are as one Man, under the Protection of that Great King?

We need not put you in mind of the Treaty (which we suppose you have had from your Fathers) made with the Province of Maryland near seventy Years ago, and renewed and confirmed twice since that time.

By these Treaties we became Brethren; we have always lived as such, and hope always to continue so.

We have this further to say, that altho' we are not satisfied of the Justice of your Claim to any Lands in Maryland, yet we are desirous of shewing our Brotherly Kindness and Affection, and to prevent (by any reasonable Way) every Misunderstanding between the Province of Maryland and you our Brethren of the Six Nations.

For this Purpose we have brought hither a Quantity of Goods for our Brethren the Six Nations, and which will be delivered you as soon as we shall have received your Answer, and made so bright and large a Fire as may burn pure and clear whilst the sun and Moon shall shine.

We have now freely and openly laid our Bosoms bare to you; and that you may be the better confirmed of the Truth of our Hearts, we give you this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the Yo-hah.

After a little Time Canassatego spoke as follows:

Brother, the Governor of Maryland,

We have heard what you have said to us; and, as you have gone back to old Times, we cannot give you an Answer now, but shall take what you have said into Consideration, and return you our Answer some Time to Morrow. He then sat down, and after some Time he spoke again.

Brother, the Governor of Maryland,

If you have made any Enquiry into Indian Affairs, you will know, that we have always had our Guns, Hatchets and Kettles, mended when we came to see our Brethren. Brother Onas, and the Governor of York always do this for us; and we give you this early Notice, that we may not thereby be delayed, being desirous, as well as you, to give all possible Dispatch to the Business to be transacted between us.

The Commissioners of Virginia and Maryland said, since it was customary, they would give Orders to have everything belonging to them mended that should want it.


In the Court-House at Lancaster, June 26, 1744, P.M.

PRESENT,

The Honourable George Thomas, Esq; Governor, &c.
The Honourable the Commissoners of Virginia.
The Honourable the Commissioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiser, Interpreter.

Canassatego spoke as follows:

Brother, the Governor of Maryland,

When you invited us to kindle a Council Fire with you, Conedogwainet was the Place agreed upon; but afterwards you, by Brother Onas, upon second Thoughts, considering that it would be difficult to get Provisions and other Accommodations where there were but few Houses or Inhabitants, desired we would meet our Brethren at Lancaster, and at his Instances we very readily agreed to meet you here, and are glad of the Change; for we have found Plenty of every thing; and as Yesterday you bid us welcome, and told us you were glad to see us, we likewise assure you we are as glad to see you; and, in Token of our satisfaction, we present you with this string of Wampum.

Which was received with the usual Ceremony.

Brother, the Governor of Maryland,

You tell us, that when about seven Years ago you heard, by our Brother Onas, of our Claim to some Lands in your Province, you took no Notice of it, believing, as you say, that when we should come to reconsider that Matter, we should find that we had no Right to make any Complaint of the Governor of Maryland, and would drop our Demand. And that when about two Years ago we mentioned it again to our Brother Onas, you say we did it in such Terms as looked like a Design to terrify you; and you tell us further, that we must be beside ourselves, in using such a rash Expression as to tell you, We know how to do ourselves Justice if you still refuse. It is true we did say so, but without any ill Design; for we must inform you, that when we first desired our Brother Onas to use his Influence with you to procure us satisfaction for our Lands, we, at the same time, desired him, in case you should disregard our Demand, to write to the Great King beyond the seas, who would own us for his Children as well as you, to compel you to do us Justice: And, two Years ago, when we found that you had paid no Regard to our just Demand, nor that Brother Onas had convey'd our Complaint to the Great King over the seas, we were resolved to use such Expressions as would make the greatest Impressions on your Minds, and we find it had its Effect; for you tell us, "That your wise Men held a Council together, and agreed to invite us, and to enquire of our Right to any of your Lands, and if it should be found that we had a Right, we were to have a Compensation made for them: And likewise you tell us, that our Brother, the Governor of Maryland, by the Advice of there wise Men, has sent you to brighten the Chain, and to assure us of his Willingness to remove whatever impedes a good Uunderstanding between us." This shews that your wise Men understood our Expressions in their true sense. We had no Design to terrify you, but to put you on doing us the Justice you had so long delayed. Your wise Men have done well and as there is no Obstacle to a good Understanding between us, except this Affair of our Land, we, on our Parts, do give you the strongest Assurances of our good Dispositions towards you, and that we are as desirous as you to brighten the Chain, and to put away all Hindrances to a perfect good Understanding; and, in Token of our sincerity, we give you this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received, and the Interpreter ordered to give the Yo-hah.

Brother, the Governor of Maryland,

When you mentioned the Affair of the Land Yesterday, you went back to old Times, and told us, you had been in Possession of the Province of Maryland above One Hundred Years; but what is One Hundred Years in Comparison of the Length of Time since our Claim began since we came out of this Ground? For we must tell you, that long before One Hundred Years our Ancestors came out of this very Ground, and their Children have remained here ever since. You came out of the Ground in a Country that lies beyond the seas, there you may have a just Claim, but here you must allow us to be your elder Brethren, and the Lands to belong to us long before you knew any thing of them. It is true, that above One Hundred Years ago the Dutch came here in a ship, and brought with them several Goods; such as Awls, Knives, Hatchets, Guns, and many other Particulars, which they gave us; and when they had taught us how to use their Things, and we saw what sort of People they were, we were so well pleased with them, that we tied their ship to the Bushes on the shore; and afterwards, liking them still better the longer they staid with us, and thinking the Bushes too tender, we removed the Rope, and tied it to the Trees; and as the Trees were liable to be blown down by high Winds, or to decay of themselves, we, from the Affection we bore them, again removed the Rope, and tied it to a strong and big Rock [here the Interpreter said, They mean the Oneido Country] and not content with this, for its further security we removed the Rope to the big Mountain [here the Interpreter jays they mean the Onandago Country] and there we tied it very fast, and rowll'd Wampum about it; and, to make it still more secure, we stood upon the Wampum, and sat down upon it, to defend it, and to prevent any Hurt coming to it, and did our best Endeavours that it might remain uninjured for ever. During all this Time the New-comers, the Dutch, acknowledged our Right to the Lands, and sollicited us, from Time to Time, to grant them Parts of our Country, and to enter into League and Covenant with us, and to become one People with us.

After this the English came into the Country, and, as we were told, became one People with the Dutch. About two Years after the Arrival of the English, an English Governor came to Albany, and finding what great Friendship subsisted between us and the Dutch, he approved it mightily, and desired to make as strong a League, and to be upon as good Terms with us as the Dutch were, with whom he was united, and to become one People with us: And by his further Care in looking into what had paired between us, he found that the Rope which tied the ship to the great Mountain was only fastened with Wampum, which was liable to break and rot, and to perish in a Course of Years; he therefore told us, he would give us a silver Chain, which would be much stronger, and would last for ever. This we accepted, and fastened the ship with it, and it has lasted ever since. Indeed we have had some small Differences with the English, and, during these Misunderstanding, some of their young Men would, by way of Reproach, be every now and then telling us, that we should have parished if they had not come into the Country and furnished us with strowds and Hatchets, and Guns, and other Things necessary for the support of Life; but we always gave them to understand that they were mistaken, that we lived before they came amongst us, and as well, or better, if we may believe what our Forefathers have told us. We had then Room enough, and Plenty of Deer, which was easily caught; and tho' we had not Knives, Hatchets, or Guns, such as we have now, yet we had Knives of stone, and Hatchets of stone, and Bows and Arrows, and those served our Uses as well then as the English ones do now. We are now straitened, and sometimes in want of Deer, and liable to many other Inconveniencies since the English came among us, and particularly from that Pen-and-Ink Work that is going on at the Table (pointing to the secretary) and we will give you an Instance of this. Our Brother Onas, a great while ago, came to Albany to buy the Sasquahannah Lands of us, but our Brother, the Governor of New-York, who, as we suppose, had not a good Understanding with our Brother Onas, advised us not to sell him any Land, for he would make an ill Use of it; and, pretending to be our good Friend, he advised us, in order to prevent Onas's, or any other Person's imposing upon us, and that we might always have our Land when we should want it, to put it into his Hands; and told us, he would keep it for our life, and never open his Hands, but keep them close shut, and not part with any of it, but at our Request. Accordingly we trusted him, and put our Land into his Hands, and charged him to keep it safe for our Use; but, some Time after, he went to England, and carried our Land with him, and there sold it to our Brother Onas for a large sum of Money; and when, at the Instance of our Brother Onas, we were minded to sell him some Lands, he told us, we had sold the Sasquahannah Lands already to the Governor of New-York, and that he had bought them from him in England; tho', when he came to understand how the Governor of New-York had deceived us, he very generously paid us for our Lands over again.

Tho' we mention this Instance of an Imposition put upon us by the Governor of New-York, yet we must do the English the Justice to say, we have had their hearty Assistances in our Wars with the French, who were no sooner arrived amongst us than they began to render us uneasy, and to provoke us to War, and we have had several Wars with them; during all which we costantly received Assistance from the English, and, by their Means, we have always been able to keep up our Heads against their Attacks.

We now come nearer home. We have had your Deeds interpreted to us, and we acknowledge them to be good and valid, and that the Conestogoe or Sasquahannah Indians had a Right to sell those Lands to you, for they were then theirs; but since that Time we have conquered them, and their Country now belongs to us, and the Lands we demanded satisfaction for are no Part of the Lands comprized in those Deeds; they are the [*] Cohongorontas Lands; those, we are sure, you have not possessed One Hundred Years, no, nor above Ten Years, and we made our Demands so soon as we knew your People were settled in those Parts. These have never been sold, but remain still; to be disposed of; and we are well pleased to hear you are provided with Goods, and do assure you of our Willingness to treat with you for those unpurchased Lands; in Confirmation whereof, we present you with this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the usual Ceremonies.

Canassatego added, that as the three Governors of Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, had divided the Lands among them, they could not, for this Reason, tell how much each had got, nor were they concerned about it, so that they were paid by all the Governors for the several Parts each possessed, and this they left to their Honour and Justice.


In the Court-House at Lancasster, June 27 1744, A. M.

PRESENT,

The Honourable George Thomas, Esq; Governor, &c.
The Honourable the Commissioners of Virginia.
The Honourable the Commissioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiser, Interpreter.

The Commissioners of Virginia ordered the Interpreter to let the Indians know the Governor of Virginia was going to speak to them, and then they spoke as follows:

Sachims and Warriors of the Six United Nations, our Friends and Brethren,

At our Desire the Governor of Pennsylvania invited you to this Conncil Fire; we have waited a long Time for you, but now you are come, you are heartily welcome; we are very glad to see you; we give you this string of Wampum.

Which was received with their usual Approbation;

Brethren,

In the Year 1736, four of your Sachims wrote a Letter to James Logan, Esq; then President of Pennsylvania, to let the Governor of Virginia know that you expected some Consideration for Lands in the Occupation of some of the People of Virginia. Upon seeing a Copy of this Letter, the Governor, with the Council of Virginia, took some Time to consider of it. They found, on looking into the old Treaties, that you had given up your Lands to the Great King, who has had Possession of Virginia above One Hundred and sixty Years, and under that Great King the Inhabitants of Virginia hold their Land, so they thought there might be some Mistake.

Wherefore they desired the Governor of New-York to enquire of you about it. He sent his Interpreter to you in May, 1743, who laid this before you at a Council held at Onandago, to which you answer, "That if you had any Demand or Pretensions on the Governor of Virginia any way, you would have made it known to the Governor of New-York" This corresponds with what you have said to Governor Thomas, in the Treaty made with him at Philadelphia in July, 1742; for then you only make your Claim to Lands in the Government of Maryland.

We are so well pleased with this good Faith of you our Brethren of the Six Nations, and your Regard to the Treaties made with Virginia, that we are ready to hear you on the subject of your Message eight Years since.

Tell us what Nations of Indians you conquered any Lands from in Virginia, how long it is since, and what Possession you have had; and if it does appear, that there is any Land on the Borders of Virginia that the Six Nations have a Right to, we are willing to make you satisfaction.

Then laid down a string of Wampum, which was accepted with the usual Ceremony, and then added,

We have a Chest of new Goods, and the Key is in our Pockets. You are our Brethren; the Great King is our common Father, and we will live with you, as Children ought to do, in Peace and Love.

We will brighten the Chain, and strengthen the Union between us; so that we shall never be divided, but remain Friends and Brethren as long as the sun gives Light; in Confirmation whereof, we give you this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the usual Ceremony.

Tachanoontia replied:

Brother Assaragoa,

YOU have made a good speech to us, which is very agreeable, and for which we return you our Thanks. We shall be able to give you an Answer to every Part of it some Time this Afternoon, and we will let you know when we are ready.


In the Court-House at Lancaster, June 27, 1744, P.M.

PRESENT,

The Honourable George Thomas, Esq; Governor, &c.
The Honourable the Commissioners of Virginia.
The Honourable the Commissioners of Maryland
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiser, Interpreter.

Tachanoontia spoke as follows:

Brother Assaragoa,

Since you have joined with the Governor of Maryland and Brother Onas in kindling this Fire, we gladly acknowledge the Pleasure we have in seeing you here, and observing your good Dispositions as well to confirm the Treaties of Friendship, as to enter into further Contracts about Land with us; and, in Token of our satisfaction, we present you with this string of Wampum.

Which was received with the usual Ceremonies.

Brother Assaragoa,

In your speech this Morning you were pleased to say we had wrote a Letter to James Logan, about seven Years ago, to demand a Consideration for our Lands in the Possession of some of the Virginians; that you held them under the Great King for upwards of One Hundred and sixty Years, and that we had already given up our Right; and that therefore you had desired the Governor of New-York to send his Interpreter to us last Year to Onandago, which he did; and, as you say, we in Council at Onandago did declare, that we had no Demand upon you for Lands, and that if we had any Pretensions, we should have made them known to the Governor of New-York; and likewise you desire to know if we have any Right to the Virginia Lands, and that we will make such Right appear, and tell you what Nations of Indians we conquered those Lands from.

Now we answer, We have the Right of Conquest, a Right too dearly purchased, and which cost us too much Blood, to give up without any Reason at all, as you say we have done at Albany; but we should be obliged to you, if you would let us see the Letter, and inform us who was the Interpreter, and whose Names are put to that Letter; for as the whole Transaction cannot be above a Year's standing, it must be fresh in every Body's Memory, and some of our Council would easily remember it; but we assure you, and are well able to prove, that neither we, nor any Part of us, have ever relinquished our Right, or ever gave such an Answer as you say is mentioned in your Letter. Could we, so few Years ago, make a formal Demand, by James Logan, and not be sensible of our Right? And hath any thing happened since that Time to make us less sensible? No; and as this Matter can be easily cleared up, we are anxious it should be done; for we are are positive no such thing was ever mentioned to us at Onondaga, nor any where else. All the World knows we conquered the several Nations living on Sasquahanna, Cohongoronta, and on the Back of the Great Mountains In Virginia; the Conoy-uch-such-roona, Coch-now-was-roonan, Toboa-irough-roonan, and Connutskin-ough-roonaw feel the Effects of our Conquests, being now a Part of our Nations, and their Lands at our Disposal. We know very well, it hath often been said by the Virginians, that the Great King of England, and the People of that Colony, conquered the Indians who lived there, but it is not true. We will allow they have conquered the Sachdagughroonaw, and drove back the Tuscarroraws, and that they have, on that Account, a Right to some Part of Virginia; but as to what lies beyond the Mountains, we conquered the Nations residing there, and that Land, if the Virginians ever get a good Right to it, it must be by us; and in Testimony of the Truth of our Answer to this Part of your speech, we give you this string of Wampum.

Which was received with the usual Ceremony.

Brother Assaragoa,

We have given you a full Answer to the first Part of your speech, which we hope will be satisfactory. We are glad to hear you have brought with you a big Chest of new Goods, and that you have the Key in your Pockets. We do not doubt but we shall have a good Understanding in all Points, and come to an Agreement with you.

We shall open all our Hearts to you, that you may know every thing in them; we will hide nothing from you; and we hope, if there be any thing still remaining in your Breast that may occasion any Dispute between us, you will take the Opportunity to unbosom your Hearts, and lay them open to us, that henceforth there may be no Dirt, nor any other Obstacle in the Road between us; and in Token of our hearty Wishes to bring about so good an Harmony, we present you with this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the usual Ceremony.

Brother Assaragoa,

We must now tell you what Mountains we mean that we say are the Boundaries between you and us. You may remember, that about twenty Years ago you had a Treaty with us at Albany, when you took a Belt of Wampum, and made a Fence with it on the Middle of the Hill, and told us, that if any of the Warriors of the Six Nations came on your side of the Middle of the Hill, you would hang them; and you gave us Liberty to do the same with any of your People who should be found on our side of the Middle of the Hill. This is the Hill we mean, and we desire that Treaty may be now confirmed. After we left Albany, we brought our Road a great deal more to the West, that we might comply with your Proposal; but, tho' it was of your own making, your People never observed it, but came and lived on our side of the Hill, which we don't blame you for, as you live at a great Distance, near the seas, and cannot be thought to know what your People do in the Back-parts: And on their settling, contrary to your own Proposal, on our new Road, it fell out that our Warriors did some Hurt to your People's Cattle, of which a Complaint was made, and transmitted to us by our Brother Onas; and we, at his Request, altered the Road again, and brought it to the Foot of the Great Mountain, where it now is; and it is is impossible for us to remove it any further to the West, those Parts of the Country being absolutely impassable by either Man or Beast.

We had not been long in the Use of this new Road before your People came, like Flocks of Birds, and sat down on both sides of it, and yet we never made a Complaint to you, tho' you must be sensible those Things must have been done by your People in manifest Breach of your own Proposal made at Albany; and therefore, as we are now opening our Hearts to you, we cannot avoid complaining, and desire all these Affairs may be settled, and that you may be stronger induced to do us Justice for what is past, and to come to a thorough settlement for the future, we, in the Presence of the Governor of Maryland, and Brother Onas, present you with this Belt of Wampum.

Which was Received with the usual Ceremony.

Then Tachanoontia added:

He forgot to say, that the Affair of the Road must be looked upon as a Preliminary to be settled before the Grant of Lands; and that either the Virginia People must be obliged to remove more Easterly, or, if they are permitted to stay, that our Warriors, marching that Way to the southward, shall go sharers with them in what they plant.


In the Court-House at Lancaster, June 28, 1744. A. M.

PRESENT,

The Honourable George Thomas, Esq; Governor, &c.
The Honourable the Commissioners of Virginia.
The Honourable the Commissioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiser, Interpreter.

The Governor spoke as follows:

Friends and Brethren of the Six Nations,

I Am always sorry when any thing happens that may create the least Uneasiness between us; but as we are mutually engaged to keep the Road between us dear and open, and to remove every Obstruction that may lie in the Way, I must inform you, that three of the Delaware Indians lately murdered John Armstrong, an Indian Trader, and his two Men, in a most barbarous Manner, as he was travelling to Allegheny, and stole his Goods of a considerable Value. Shick Calamy, and the Indians settled at Shamokin, did well; they seized two of the Murderers, and sent them down to our settlements; but the Indians, who had the Charge of them, afterwards suffered one of them to escape, on a Pretence that he was not concerned in the bloody Deed; the other is now in Philadelphia Goal, By our Law all the Accessaries to a Murder are to be tried, and put to Death, as well as the Person who gave the deadly Wound. If they consented to it, encouraged it, or any ways assisted in it, they are to be put to Death, and it is just it should be so. If, upon Trial, the Persons present at the Murder are found not to have done any of these Things, they are set at Liberty. Two of our People were, not many Years ago, publickly put to Death for killing two Indians; we therefore expect you will take the most effectual Measures to seize and deliver up to us the other two Indians present at these Murders, to be tried with the Principal now in Custody. If it shall appear, upon their Trial, that they were not advising, or any way assisting in this horrid Fact, they will be acquitted, and sent home to their Towns. And that you may be satisfied no Injustice will be done to them, I do now invite you to depute three or four Indians to be present at their Trials. I do likewise expect that you will order strict search to be made for the Remainder of the stolen Goods, that they may be restored to the Wife and Children of the Deceased. That what I have laid may have its due Weight with you, I give you this string of Wampum.

Which was accepted with the Yo-hah.

The Governor afterwards ordered the Interpreter to tell them, he expected a very full Answer from them, and that they might take their own Time to give it; for he did not desire to interfere with the Business of Virginia and Maryland.

They said they would take it into Consideration, and give a full Answer.

Then the Commissioners of Virginia let them know, by the Interpreter, that they would speak to them in the Afternoon.


In the Court-House Chamber at Lancaster, June 28, 1744, P. M.

PRESENT,

The Honourable the Commissioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiser, Interpreter.

The Commissioners desired the Interpreter to tell the Indians they were going to speak to them. Mr. Weiser acquainted them herewith. After which the said Commissioners spoke as follows:

Our good Friends and Brethren, the Six united Nations,

We have considered what you said concerning your Title to some Lands now in our Province, and also of the Place where they lie. Altho' we cannot admit your Right, yet we are so resolved to live in Brotherly Love and Affection with the Six Nations, that upon your giving us a Release in Writing of all your Claim to any Lands in Maryland, we shall make you a Compensation to the Value of Three Hundred Pounds Currency, to the Payment of Part whereof we have brought some Goods, and shall make up the rest in what Manner you think fit.

As we intend to say something to you about our Chain of Friendship after this Affair of the Land is settled, we desire you will now examine the Goods, and make an End of this Matter.

We will not omit acquainting our good Friends the Six Nations, that notwithstanding we are likely to come to an Agreement about your Claim of Lands, yet your Brethren of Maryland look on you to be as one soul and one Body with themselves; and as a broad Road will be made between us we shall always be desirous of keeping it clear, that we may, from Time to Time, take care that the Links of our Friendship be not rusted. In Testimony that our Words and our Hearts agree, we give you this Belt of Wampum.

On presenting of which the Indians gave the usual Cry of Approbation,

Mr. Weiser acquainted the Indians, they might now look over the several Goods placed on a Table in the Chamber for that Purpose; and the honourable Commissioners bid him tell them, if they disliked any of the Goods, or, if they were damaged, the Commissioners would put a less Price on such as were either disliked or damnified.

The Indians having viewed and examined the Goods, and seeming dissatisfied at the Price and Worth of them, required Time to go down into the Court-House, in order for a Consultation to be had by the Chiefs of them concerning the said Goods, and likewise that the Interpreter might retire with them, which he did. Accordingly they went down into the Conrt-House, and soon after returned again into the Chamber.

Mr. Weiser sat down among the Indians, and discoursed them about the Goods, and in some short Time after they chose the following from among the others, and the Price agreed to be given for them by the Six Nations was, viz.

Four Pieces of strowds, at 7 L.
Two Pieces Ditto, 5 L.
Two Hundred shirts,
Three Pieces Half-Thicks,
Three Pieces Duffle Blankets, at 7 L.
One Piece Ditto,
Forty seven Guns, at 1 L. 6 s.
One Pound Vermillion,
One Thousand Flints,
Four Dozen Jews Harps,
One Dozen Boxes,
One Hundred Two Quarters Bar-Lead,
Two Quarters shot,
Two Half-Barrels of Gun-Powder.

When the Indians had agreed to take these Goods at the Rates above specified, they informed the Interpreter, that they would give an Answer to the speech made to them this Morning by the honourable the Commissioners of Maryland, but did not express the Time when such Answer should be made. At 12 o' Clock the Commissioners departed the Chamber.


In the Court-House at Lancaster, June 28, 1744, P. M.

The Honourable George Thomas, Esq; Governor, &c.
The Honourable the Commissioners of Virginia.
The Honourable the Commssioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiser, Interpreter.

The Commissioners of Virginia desired the Interpreter to let the Indians know that their Brother Assaragoa was now going to give his Reply to their Answer to his first speech, delivered them the Day before in the Forenoon.

Sachims and Warriors of the united Six Nations,

We are now come to answer what you said to us Yesterday, since what we said to you before on the Part of the Great King, our Father, has not been satisfactory. You have gone into old Times, and so must we. It is true that the Great King holds Virginia by Right of Conquest, and the Bounds of that Conquest to the Westward is the Great sea.

If the Six Nations have made any Conquest over Indians that may at any Time have lived on the West-side of the Great Mountains of Virginia, yet they never possessed any Lands there that we have ever heard of. That Part was altogether deserted, and free for any People to enter upon, as the People of Virginia have done, by Order of the Great King, very justly, as well by an ancient Right; as by its being freed from the Possession of any other, and from any Claim even of you the Six Nations, our Brethren, until within these eight Years. The first Treaty between the Great King, in Behalf of his subjects of Virginia, and you, that we can find, was made at Albany, by Colonel Henry Coursy, seventy Years since; this was a Treaty of Friendship, when the first Covenant Chain was made, when we and you became Brethren.

The next Treaty was also at Albany above Fifty-eight Years ago, by the Lord Howard, Governor of Virginia; then you declare yourselves subjects to the Great King, our Father, and gave up to him all your Lands for his Protection. This you own in a Treaty made by the Governor of New-York with you at the same Place in the Year 1687, and you express yourselves in these Words, "Brethren, you tell us the King of England is a very great King, and why should not you join with us in a very just Cause, when the French join with our Enemies in an unjust Cause? O Brethern, we see the Reason of this; for the French would fain kill us all, and when that is done, they would carry all the Beaver Trade to Canada, and the Great King of ENGLAND would lose the Land likewise; and therefore, O Great Sachim, beyond the Great Lakes, awake, and suffer not those poor Indians, that have given themselves and their Lands under your Protection, to be destroyed by the French without a Cause."

The last Treaty we shall speak to you about is that made at Albany by Governor Spotswood, which you have not recited as it is: For the white People, your Brethren of Virginia, are, in no Article of that Treaty, prohibited to pass, and settle to the Westward of the Great Mountains. It is the Indians, tributary to Virginia, that are restrained, as you and your tributary Indians are from passing to the Eastward of the same Mountains, or to the southward of Cohongoroeton, and you agree to this Article in these Words; "That the Great River of Potowmack, and the high Ridge of Mountains, which extend all along the Frontiers of Virginia to the Westward of the present settlements of that Colony, shall be for ever the established Boundaries between the Indians subject to the Dominions of Virginia, and the Indians belonging and depending on the Five Nations; so that neither our Indians shall not, on any Pretence whatsoever, pass to Northward or Westward of the said Boundaries, without having to produce a Passport under the hand and seal of the Governor or Commander in Chief of Virginia; nor your Indians to pass to the southward or Eastward of the said Boundaries, without a Passport in like Manner from the Governor or Commander in Chief of New-York."

And what Right can you have to Lands that you have no Right to walk upon, but upon certain Conditions? It is true, you have not observed this Part of the Treaty, and your Brethren of Virginia have not insisted upon it with a due strictness, which has occasioned some Mischief.

This Treaty has been sent to the Governor of Virginia by Order of the Great King, and is what we must rely on, and, being in Writing, is more certain than your Memory. That is the Way the white People have of preserving Transactions of every Kind, and transmitting them down to their Childrens Children for ever, and all Disputes among them are settled by this faithful kind of Evidence, and must be the Rule between the Great King and you. This Treaty your sachims and Warriors signed some Years after the same Governor Spotswood, in the Right of the Great King, had been, with some People of Virginia, in Possession of these very Lands, which you have set up your late Claim to.

The Commissioners for Indian Affairs at Albany gave the Account we mentioned to you Yesterday to the Governor of New-York, and he sent it to the Governor of Virginia; their Names will be given you by the Interpreter.

Brethren,

This Dispute is not between Virginia and you; it is setting up your Right against the Great King, under whose Grants the People you complain of are settled. Nothing but a Command from the Great King can remove them; they are too powerful to be removed by any Force of you, our Brethren; and the Great King, as our common Father, will do equal Justice to all his Children; wherefore we do believe they will be confirmed in their Possessions.

As to the Road you mention, we intended to prevent any Occasion for it, by making a Peace between you and the southern Indians, a few Years since, at a considerable Expence to our Great King, which you confirmed at Albany. It seems, by your being at War with the Catawbas, that it has not been long kept between you.

However, if you desire a Road, we will agree to one on the Terms of the Treaty you made with Colonel Spotswood, and your People, behaving themselves orderly like Friends and Brethren, shall be used in their Passage through Virginia with the fame Kindness as they are when they pass through the Lands of your Brother Onas. This, we hope, will be agreed to by you our Brethren, and we will abide by the Promise made to you Yesterday.

We may proceed to settle what we are to give you for any Right you may have, or have had to all the Lands to the southward and Westward of the Lands of your Brother the Governor of Maryland, and of your Brother Onas; tho' we are informed that the southern Indians claim these very Lands that you do.

We are desirous to live with you, our Brethren, according to the old Chain of Friendship, to settle all these Matters fairly and honestly; and, as a Pledge of our sincerity, we give you this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the usual Ceremony.


In the Court-House Chamber at Lancaster, June 29, 1744, A. M.

PRESENT,

The Honourable the Commissioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiser, Interpreter.

Mr. Weiser informed the honourable Commissioners, the Indians were ready to give their Answer to the speech made to them here Yesterday Morning by the Commissioners; whereupon Canassatego spoke as follows, looking on a Dealboard, where were some black Lines, describing the Courses of Potowmack and Sasquahanna;

Brethren,

Yesterday you spoke to us concerning the Lands on this side Potowmack River, and as we have deliberately considered what you said to us on that Matter, we are now very ready to settle the Bounds of such Lands, and release our Right and Claim thereto.

We are willing to renounce all Right to Lord Baltimore of all those Lands lying two Miles above the uppermost Fork of Potowmack or Cohongoration River, near which Thomas Cressap has a hunting or trading Cabin, by a Northline, to the Bounds of Pennsylvania. But in case such Limits shall not include every settlement or Inhabitant of Maryland, then such other Lines and Courses, from the said two Miles above the Forks, to the outermost Inhabitants or settlements, as shall include every settlement and Inhabitant in Maryland, and from thence, by a North-line, to the Bounds of Pennsylvania, shall be the Limits. And further, If any People already have, or shall settle beyond the Lands now described and bounded, they shall enjoy the same free from any Disturbance whatever, and we do, and shall accept these People for our Brethren, and as such always treat them.

We earnestly desire to live with you as Brethren, and hope you will shew us all Brotherly Kindness in Token whereof, we present you with a Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the usual Ceremony

Soon after the Commissioners and Indians departed from the Court-House Chamber.


In the Court-House Chamber at Lancaster, June 30, 1744, A. M.

PRESENT,

The Honourable the Commissioners of Virginia.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiser, Interpreter.

Gachradodow, speaker for the Indians, in Answer to the Commissioners speech at the last Meeting, with a strong Voice, and proper Action, spoke as follows:

Brother Assaragoa,

The World at the first was made on the other side of the Great Water different from what it is on this side, as may be known from the different Colours of our skin, and of our Flesh, and that which you call Justice may not be so amongst us; you have your Laws and Customs, and so have we. The Great King might send you over to conquer the Indians, but it looks to us that God did not approve of it; if he had, he would not have placed the sea where it is, as the Limits between us and you.

Brother Assaragoa,

Tho' great Things are well remembered among us, yet we don't remember that we were ever conquered by the Great King, or that we have been employed by that Great King to conquer others; if it was so, it is beyond our Memory. We do remember we were employed by Maryland to conquer the Conestogoes, and that the second time we were at War with them, we carried them all off.

Brother Assaragoa,

You charge as with not acting agreeable to our Peace with the Catawbas, we will repeat to you truly what was done. The Governor of New-York, at Albany, in Behalf of Assaragoa, gave us several Belts of Wampum from the Cherikees and Catawbas, and we agreed to a Peace, if those Nations would send some of their great Men to us to confirm it Face to Face, and that they would trade with us; and desired that they would appoint a Time to meet at Albany for that Purpose, but they never came.

Brother Assaragoa,

We then desired a Letter might be sent to the Catawbas and Cherikees, to desire them to come and confirm the Peace. It was long before an Answer came; but we met the Cherikees, and confirmed the Peace, and sent some of our People to take care of them, until they returned to their own Country.

The Catawbas refused to come, and sent us word, That we were but Women, that they were Men, and double Men, for they had two P—s; that they could make Women of us, and would be always at War with us. They are a deceitful People. Our Brother Assaragoa is deceived by them; we don't blame him for it, but are sorry he is deceived.

Brother Assaragoa,

We have confirmed the Peace with the Cherikees, but not with the Catawbas. They have been treacherous, and know it; so that the War must continue till one of us is destroyed. This we think proper to tell you, that you may not be troubled at what we do to the Catawbas.

Brother Assaragoa,

We will now speak to the Point between us. You say you will agree with us as to the Road; we desire that may be the Road which was last made (the Waggon-Road.) It is always a Custom among Brethren or strangers to use each other kindly; you have some very ill-natured People living up there; so that we desire the Persons in Power may know that we are to have reasonable Victuals when we are in want.

You know very well, when the white People came first here they were poor; but now they have got our Lands, and are by them become rich, and we are now poor; what little we have had for the Land goes soon away, but the Land lasts for ever. You told us you had brought with you a Chest of Goods, and that you have the Key in your Pockets; but we have never seen the Chest, nor the Goods that are said to be in it; it may be small, and the Goods few; we want to see them, and are desirous to come to some Conclusion. We have been sleeping here these ten Days past, and have not done any thing to the Purpose.

The Commissioners told them they should see the Goods on Monday,


In the Court-House at Lancaster, June 30, 1744, P. M.

PRESENT,

The Honourable George Thomas, Esq; Governor, &c.
The Honourable the Commissioners of Virginia.
The Honourable the Commissioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiser, Interpreter,

The three Governments entertained the Indians, and all the Gentlemen in Town, with a handsome Dinner. The Six Nations, in their Order, having returned Thanks with the usual solemnity of Yo-ha-bon, the Interpreter informed the Governor and the Commissioners, that as the Lord Proprietor and Governor of Maryland was not known to the Indians by any particular Name, they had agreed, in Council, to take the first Opportunity of a large Company to present him with one; and as this with them is deemed a Matter of great Consequence, and attended with Abundance of Form, the several Nations had drawn Lots for the Performance of the Ceremony, and the Lot falling on the Cayogo Nation, they had chosen Gachradodow, one of their Chiefs, to be their speaker, and he desired Leave to begin; which being given, he, on an elevated Part of the Court-House, with all the Dignity of a Warrior, the Gesture of an Orator, and in a very graceful Posture, spoke as follows:

"As the Governor of Maryland had invited them here to treat about their Lands, and brighten the Chain of Friendship, the united Nations thought themselves so much obliged to them, that they had come to a Resolution in Council to give to the great Man, who is Proprietor of Maryland, a particular Name, by which they might hereafter correspond with him; and as it had fallen to the Cayogoes Lot in Council to consider of a proper Name for that chief Man, they had agreed to give him the Name of Tocarry-hogan, denoting Precedency, Excellency, or living in the middle or honourable Place betwixt Assaragoa and their Brother Onas, by whom their Treaties might be better carried on." And then, addressing himself to his Honour the Governor of Pennsylvania, the honourable the Commissioners of Virginia and Maryland, and to the Gentlemen then present, he proceeded:

"As there is a Company of great Men now assembled, we take this Time and Opportunity to publish this Matter, that it may be known Tocarry-hogan is our Friend, and that we are ready to honour him, and that by such Name he may be always called and known among us. And we hope he will ever act towards us according to the Excellency of the Name we have now given him, and enjoy a long and happy Life."

The honourable the Governor and Commissioners, and all the Company present, returned the Compliment with three Huzza's, and, after drinking

Healths to our gracious King and the Six Nations, the Commissioners of Maryland proceeded to Business in the Court-House Chamber with the Indians, where Conrad Weiser, the Interpreter, was present.

The honourable the Commissioners ordered Mr. Weiser to tell the Indians, that a Deed, releasing all their Claim and Title to certain Lands lying in the Province of Maryland, which by them was agreed to be given and executed for the Use of the Lord Baron of Baltimore, Lord Proprietary of that Province, was now on the Table, and seals ready fixed thereto. The Interpreter acquainted them therewith as desired, and then gave the Deed to Canassatego the speaker, who made his Mark, and put his seal, and delivered it; after which, thirteen other Chiefs or Sachims of the Six Nations executed it in the same Manner, in the Presence of the honourable the Commissioners of Virginia, and divers other Gentlemen of that Colony, and of the Provinces of Pennsylvania and Maryland.


At the House of Mr. George Sanderson in Lancaster, July 2, 1744, A. M.

PRESENT,

The Honourable the Commissioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiser, Interpreter.

The several Chief: of the Indians of the Six Nations, who had not signed the Deed of Release of their Claim to some Lands in Maryland, tendered to them on saturday last, in the Chamber of the Court-House in this Town, did now readily execute the same, and caused Mr. Weiser likewise to sign it, as well with his Indian, as with his own proper Name of Weiser, as a Witness and Interpreter.


In the Court-House at Lancaster, July 2, 1744. A. M.

PRESENT,

The Honourable George Thomas, Esq; Governor, Etc.
The Honourable the Commissioners of Virginia.
The Honourable the Commissioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiser, Interpreter.

Canassatego spoke as follows:

Brother Onas,

The other Day you was pleased to tell us, you were always concerned whenever any thing happened that might give you or us Uneasiness, and that we were mutually engaged to preserve the Road open and clear between us; and you informed us of the Murder of John Armstrong, and his two Men, by some of the Delaware Indians, and of their stealing his Goods to a considerable Value. The Delaware Indians, as you suppose, are under our Power. We join with you in your Concern for such a vile Proceeding; and, to testify that we have the same Inclinations with you to keep the Road clear, free and open, we give you this string of Wampum.

Which was received with the usual Ceremony.

Brother Onas,

These Things happen frequently, and we desire you will consider them well, and not be too much concerned. Three Indians have been killed at different Times at Ohio, and we never mentioned any of them to you, imagining it might have been occasioned by some unfortunate Quarrels, and being unwilling to create a Disturbance. We therefore desire you will consider these Things well, and, to take the Grief from your Heart, we give you this string of Wampum.

Which was received with the usual Ceremonies.

Brother Onas,

We had heard of the Murder of John Armstrong, and, in our Journey here, we had Conference with our Cousins the Delawares about it, and reproved them severely for it, and charged them to go down to our Brother Onas, and make him satisfaction, both for the Men that were killed, and for the Goods. We understood, by them, that the principal Actor in these Murders is in your Prison, and that he had done all the Mischief himself; but that, besides him, you had required and demanded two others who were in his Company when the Murders were committed. We promise faithfully, in our Return, to renew our Reproofs, and to charge the Delawares to send down some of their Chiefs with these two young Men (but not as Prisoners) to be examined by you; and as we think, upon Examination, you will not find them guilty, we rely on your Justice not to do them any Harm, but to permit them to return home in safety.

We likewise understand, that search has been made for the Goods belonging to the Deceased, and that some have been already returned to your People, but that some are still missing. You may depend upon our giving the strictest Charge to the Delawares to search again with more Diligence for the Goods, and to return them, or the Value of them, in skins. And, to confirm what we have said, we give you this string of Wampum.

Which was received with the usual Ceremonies.

Brother Onas,

The Conoy Indians have informed us, that they sent you a Message, some Time ago, to advise you, that they were ill used by the white People in the Place where they had lived, and that they had come to a Resolution of removing to Shamokin, and requested some small satisfaction for their Land; and as they never have received any Answer from you, they have desired us to speak for them; we heartily recommend their Case to your Generosity.

And, to give Weight to our Recommendation; we present you with this string of Wampum.

Which was received with the usual Ceremony.

The Governor having conferred a little Time with the honourable Commissioners of Virginia and Maryland, made the following Reply:

Bretheren,

I am glad to find that you agree with me in the Necessity of keeping the Road between us clear and open, and the Concern you have expressed on account of the barbarous Murders mentioned to you, is a Proof of your Brotherly Affection for us. If Crimes of this Nature be not strictly enquired into, and the Criminals severely punished, there will be an End of all Commerce between us and the Indians, and then you will be altogether in the Power of the French. They will set what Price they please on their own Goods, and give you what they think fit for your skins; so it is for your own Interest that our Traders should be safe in their Persons and Goods when they travel to your Towns.

Brethren,

I considered this Matter well before I came from Philadelphia, and I advised with the Council there upon it, as I have done here with the honourable the Commissioners of Virginia and Maryland. I never heard before of the Murder of the three Indians at Ohio; had Complaint been made to me of it, and it had appeared to have been committed by any of the People under my Government, they should have been put to Death, as two of them were, some Years ago, for killing two Indians. You are not to take your own satisfaction, but to apply to me, and I will see that justice be done you; and should any of the Indians rob or murder any of our People, I do expect that you will deliver them up to be tried and punished in the same Manner as white People are. This is the Way to preserve Friendship between us, and will be for your Benefit as well as ours. I am well pleased with the steps you have already taken, and the Reproofs you have given to your Cousins the Delawares, and do expect you will lay your Commands upon some of their Chiefs to bring down the two young Men that were present at the Murders; if they are not brought down, I shall look upon it as a Proof of their Guilt.

If, upon Examination, they shall be found not to have been concerned in the bloody Action, they shall be well used, and sent home in safety: I will take it upon myself to see that they have no Injustice done them. An Inventory is taken of the Goods already restored, and I expect satisfaction will be made for such as cannot be found, in skins, according to their Promise.

I well remember the coming down of one of the Conoy Indians with a Paper, setting forth, That the Conoys had come to a Resolution to leave the Land reserved for them by the Proprietors, but he made no Complaint to me of ill Usage from the white People. The Reason he gave for their Removal was, That the settling of the white People all round them had made Deer scarce, and that therefore they chose to remove to Juniata for the Benefit of Hunting. I ordered what they said to be entered in the Council-Book. The old Man's Expences were born, and a Blanket given him at his Return home. I have not yet heard from the Proprietors on this Head; but you may be assured, from the Favour and Justice they have always shewn to the Indians, that they will do every thing that can be reasonably expected of them in this Case.


In the Court-House Chamber at Lancaster, July 2, 1744, P. M.

PRESENT,

The Honourable the Commissioners of Virginia,
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiser, Interpreter.

The Indians being told, by the Interpreter, that their Brother Assaragoa was going to speak to them, the Commissioners spoke as follows:

Sachims and Warriors, our Friends and Brethren,

"As we have already said enough to you on the subject of the Title to the Lands you claim from Virginia, we have no Occasion to say any thing more to you on that Head, but come directly to the Point.

We have opened the Chest, and the Goods are now here before you; they cost Two Hundred Pounds Pennsylvania Money, and were bought by a Person recommended to us by the Governor of Pennsylvania with ready Cash. We ordered them to be good in their Kinds, and we believe they are so. These Goods, and Two Hundred Pounds in Gold, which lie on the Table, we will give you, our Brethren of the Six Nations, upon Condition that you immediately make a Deed recognizing the King's Right to all the Lands that are, or shall be, by his Majesty's Appointment in the Colony of Virginia.

As to the Road, we agree you shall have one, and the Regulation is in Paper, which the Interpreter now has in his Custody to shew you. The People of Virginia shall perform their Part, if you and your Indians perform theirs; we are your Brethren, and will do no Hardships to you, but, on the contrary, all the Kindness we can."

The Indians agreed to what was said, and Canassatego desired they would represent their Case to the King, in order to have a further Consideration when the settlement increased much further back. To which the Commissioners agreed, and promised they would make such a Representation faithfully and honestly; and, for their further security that they would do so, they would give them a Writing, under their Hands and seals, to that Purpose.

They desired that some Rum might be given them to drink on their Way home, which the Commissioners agreed to, and paid them in Gold for that Purpose, and the Carriage of their Goods from Philadelphia, Nine Pounds, Thirteen shillings, and Three-pence, Pennsylvania Money.

Canassatego further said, That as their Brother Tocarry-hogan sent them Provision on the Road here, which kept them from starving, he hoped their Brother would do the same for them back, and have the Goods he gave them carried to the usual Place; which the Commissioners agreed to, and ordered Provisions and Carriages to be provided accordingly.

After this Conference the Deed was produced, and the Interpreter explained it to them; and they, according to their Rank and Quality, put their Marks and seals to it in the Presence of several Gentlemen of Maryland, Pennsylvania and Virginia; and when they delivered the Deed, Canassatego delivered it for the Use of their Father, the Great King, and hoped he would consider them; on which the Gentlemen and Indians then present gave three Shouts.


In the Court-House at Lancaster, Tuesday, July 3, 1744, A. M.

PRESENT,

The Honourable George Thomas, Esq; Governor, &c.
The Honourable the Commissioners of Virginia.
The Honourable the Commissioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiser, Interpreter.

The Governor spoke as follows:

Friends and Brethren of the Six Nations,

At a Treaty held with many of the Chiefs of your Nations Two Years ago, the Road between us was made clearer and wider; our Fire was enlarged, and our Friendship confirmed by an Exchange of Presents, and many other mutual good Offices.

We think ourselves happy in having been instrumental to your meeting with our Brethren of Virginia and Maryland; and we persuade ourselves, that you, on your Parts, will always remember it as an Instance of our Goodwill and Affection for you. This has given us an Opportunity of seeing you sooner than perhaps we should otherwise have done; and, as we are under mutual Obligations by Treaties, we to hear with our Ears for you, and you to hear with your Ears for us, we take this Opportunity to inform you of what very nearly concerns us both.

The Great King of England and the French King have declared War against each other. Two Battles have been fought, one by Land, and the other by sea. The Great King of ENGLAND commanded the Land Army in Person, and gained a compleat Victory. Numbers of the French were killed and taken Prisoners, and the rest were forced to pass a River with Precipitation to save their Lives. The Great God covered the King's Head in that Battle, so that he did not receive the least Hurt; for which you, as well as we, have Reason to be very thankful.

The Engagement at sea was likewise to the Advantage of the English. The French and Spaniards joined their ships together, and came out to fight us. The brave English Admiral burnt one of their largest ships, and many others were so shattered, that they were glad to take the Opportunity of a very high Wind, and a dark Night, to run away, and to hide themselves again in their own Harbours. Had the Weather proved fair, he would, in all Probability, have taken or destroyed them all.

I need not put you in mind how much William Penn and his sons have been your Friends, and the Friends of all the Indians. You have long and often experienced their Friendship for you; nor need I repeat to you how kindly you were treated, and what valuable Presents were made to you Two Years ago by the Governor, the Council, and the Assembly, of Pennsylvania. The sons of William Penn are all now in England, and have left me in their Place, well knowing how much I regard you and all the Indians. As a fresh Proof of this, I have left my House, and am come thus far to see you, to renew our Treaties, to brighten the Covenant Chain, and to confirm our Friendship with you. In Testimony whereof, I present you with this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the Yo-hah.

As your Nations have engaged them selves by Treaty to assist us, your Brethren of Pennsylvania, in case of a War with the French, we do not doubt but you will punctually perform an Engagement so solemnly entred into. A War is now declared; and we expect that you will not suffer the French, or any of the Indians in Alliance with them, to march through your Country to disturb any of our settlements; and that you will give us the earliest and best Intelligence of any Designs that may be formed by them to our Disadvantage, as we promise to do of any that may be to yours. To enforce what I have now said to you in the strongest Manner, I present you with this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the Yo-hah.

After a little Pause his Honour, the Governor, spoke again

Friends and Brethren of the Six Nations,

What I have now said to you is in Conformity to Treaties subsisting between the Province of which I am Governor and your Nations. I now proceed, with the Consent of the honourable Commissioners for Virginia and Maryland, to tell you, that all Differences having been adjusted, and the Roads between us and you made quite clear and open, we are ready to confirm our Treaties with your Nations, and establish a Friendship that is not to end, but with the World itself. And, in Behalf of the Province of Pennsylvania, I do, by this fine Belt of Wampum, and a Present of Goods, to the Value of Three Hundred Pounds, confirm and establish the said Treaties of Peace, Union and Friendship, you on your Parts doing the same.

Which was received with a loud Yo-hah.

The Governor further added, The Goods bought with the One Hundred Pounds sterling, put into my Hands by the Governor of Virginia, are ready to be delivered when you please. The Goods bought and sent up by the People of the Province of Pennsylvania, according to the List which the Interpreter will explain, are laid by themselves, and are likewise ready to be delivered to you at your own time.

After a little Pause the Commissioners of Virginia spoke as follows:

Sachems and Warriors of the Six Nations,

The Way between us being made smooth by what passed Yesterday, we desire now to confirm all former Treaties made between Virginia and you, our Brethren of the Six Nations, and to make our Chain of Union and Friendship as bright as the sun, that it may not contract any more Rust for ever; that our Childrens Children may rejoice at, and confirm what we have done; and that you and your Children may not forget it, we give you One Hundred Pounds in Gold, and this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the usual Ceremony.

Friends and Brethren,

Altho' we have been disappointed in our Endeavours to bring about a Peace between you and the Catawbas, yet we desire to speak to you something more about them. We believe they have been unfaithful to you, and spoke of you with a foolish Contempt; but this may be only the Rashness of some of their young Men. In this Time of War with our common Enemies the French and spaniards, it will be the wisest Way to be at Peace among ourselves. They, the Catawbas, are also Children of the Great King, and therefore we desire you will agree, that we may endeavour to make a Peace between you and them, that we may be all united by one common Chain of Friendship. We give you this string of Wampum.

Which was received with the Usual Ceremony.

Brethren,

Our Friend, Conrad Weiser, when he is old, will go into the other World, as our Fathers have done; our Children will then want such a Friend to go between them and your Children, to reconcile any Differences that may happen to arise between them, that, like him, may have the Ears and Tongues of our Children and yours.

The Way to have such a Friend, is for you to send three or four of your Boys to Virginia, where we have a fine House for them to live in, and a Man on purpose to teach the Children of you, our Friends, the Religion, Language and Customs of the white People. To this Place we kindly invite you to send some of your Children, and we promise you they shall have the same Care taken of them, and be instructed in the same Manner as our own Children, and be returned to you again when you please; and, to confirm this, we give you this string of Wampum.

Which was received with the usual Ceremony.

Then the Commissioners of Maryland spoke as follows:

Friends and Brethren, the Chiefs or sachims of the six united Nations,

The Governor of Maryland invited you hither, we have treated you as Friends, and agreed with you as Brethren.

As the Treaty now made concerning the Lands in Maryland will, we hope, prevent effectualy every future Misunderstanding between us on that Account, we will now bind faster the Links of our Chain of Friendship by a Renewal of all our former Treaties; and that they may still be the better secured, we shall present you with One Hundred Pounds in Gold.

What we have further to say to you is, Let not our Chain contract any Rust; whenever you perceive the least speck, tell us of it, and we will make it clean. This we also expect of you, that it may always continue so bright as our Generations may see their Faces in it; and, in Pledge of the Truth of what we have now spoken, and our Affection to you, we give you this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the usual Ceremony.

Canassatego, in return, spoke as follows:

Brother Onas, Assaragoa, and Tocarry-hogan,

We return you Thanks for your several speeches, which are very agreeable to us. They contain Matters of such great Moment, that we propose to give them a very serious Consideration, and to answer them suitably to their Worth and Excellence; and this will take till To-morrow Morning, and when we are ready we will give you due Notice.

You tell us you beat the French; if so, you must have taken a great deal of Rum from them, and can the better spare us some of that Liquor to make us rejoice with you in the Victory.

The Governor and Commissioners ordered a Dram of Rum to be given to each in a small Glass, calling it, A French Glass.


In the Court-House at Lancaster, July 4, 1744, A. M.

PRESENT,

The Honourable George Thomas, Esq; Governor, &c.
The Honourable the Commissioners of Virginia.
The Honourable the Commissioners of Maryland,
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiser, Interpreter.

Canassatego Speaker.

Brother Onas,

Yesterday you expressed your satisfaction in having been instrumental to our meeting with our Brethren of Virginia and Maryland. We, in return, assure you, that we have great Pleasure in this Meeting, and thank you for the Part you have had in bringing us together, in order to create a good Understanding, and to clear the Road; and, in Token of our Gratitude, we present you with this string of Wampum.

Which was received with the usual Ceremony,

Brother Onas,

You was pleased Yesterday to inform us, "That War had been declared between the Great King of England and the French King; that two great Battles had been fought, one by Land, and the other at sea; with many other Particulars." We are glad to hear the Arms of the King of England were successful, and take part with you in your Joy on this Occasion. You then came nearer Home, and told us, "You had left your House, and were come thus far on Behalf of the whole People of Pennsylvania to see us; to renew your Treaties; to brighten the Covenant Chain, and to confirm your Friendship with us." We approve this Proposition; we thank you for it. We own, with Pleasure, that the Covenant Chain between us and Pennsylvania is of old standing, and has never contracted any Rust; we wish it may always continue as bright as it has done hitherto; and, in Token of the sincerity of our Wishes, we present you with this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the Yo-hah.

Brother Onas,

You was pleased Yesterday to remind us of our mutual Obligation to assist each other in case of a War with the French, and to repeat the substance of what we ought to do by our Treaties with you; and that as a War had been already entered into with the French, you called upon us to assist you, and not to suffer the French to march through our Country to disturb any of your settlements.

In answer, We assure you we have all these Particulars in our Hearts, they are fresh in our Memory. We shall never forget that you and we have but one Heart, one Head, one Eye, one Ear, and one Hand. We shall have all your Country under our Eye, and take all the Care we can to prevent any Enemy from coming into it; and, in Proof of our Care, we must inform you, that before we came here, we told [*] Onantio, our Father, as he is called, that neither he, nor any of his People, should come through our Country, to hurt our Brethren the English, or any of the settlements belonging to them; there was Room enough at sea to fight, there he might do what he pleased, but he should not come upon our Land to do any Damage to our Brethren. And you may depend upon our using our utmost Care to see this effectually done; and, in Token of our sincerity, we present you with this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the usual Ceremony.

After some little Time the Interpreter said, Canassatego had forgot something material, and desired to mend his speech, and to do so as often as he should omit any thing of Moment, and thereupon be added:

The Six Nations have a great Authority and Influence over sundry Tribes of Indians in Alliance with the French, and particularly over the praying Indians, formerly a Part with ourselves, who stand in the very Gates of the French; and, to shew our further Care, we have engaged these very Indians; and other Indian Allies of the French for you. They will not join the French against you. They have agreed with us before we set out. We have put the spirit of Antipathy against the French in those People. Our Interest is very considerable with them, and many other Nations, and as far as ever it extends, we shall use it for your service.

The Governor said, Canassatego did well to mend his speech; he might always do it whenever his Memory should fail him in any Point of Consequence, and he thanked him for the very agreeable Addition.

Brother Assaragoa,

You told us Yesterday, that all Disputes with you being now at an End, you deferred to confirm all former Treaties between Virginia and us, and to make our Chain of Union as bright as the sun.

We agree very heartily with you in these Propositions; we thank you for your good Inclinations; we desire you will pay no Regard to any idle stories that may be told to our Prejudice. And, as the Dispute about the Land is now intirely over, and we perfectly reconciled,

we hope, for the future, we shall not act towards each other but as becomes Brethren and hearty Friends.

We are very willing to renew the Friendship with you, and to make it as firm as possible, for us and our Children with you and your Children to the latest Generation, and we desire you will imprint these Engagements on your Hearts in the strongest Manner; and, in Confirmation that we shall do the same, we give you this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with Yo-hah from the Interpreter and all the Nations.

Brother Assaragoa,

You did let us know Yesterday, that tho' you had been disappointed in your Endeavours to bring about a Peace between us and the Catawbas, yet you would still do the best to bring such a Thing about. We are well pleased with your Design, and the more so, as we hear you know what sort of People the Catawbas are, that they are spiteful and offensive, and have treated us contemptuously. We are glad you know these Things of the Catawbas; we believe what you say to be true, that there are, notwithstanding, some amongst them who are wiser and better; and, as you say, they are your Brethren, and belong to the Great King over the Water, we shall not be against a Peace on reasonable Terms, provided they will come to the Northward to treat about it. In Confirmation of what we say, and to encourage you in your Undertaking, we give you this string of Wampum:

Which was received with the usual Ceremonies,

Brother Assaragoa;

You told us likewise, you had a great House provided for the Education of Youth, and that there were several white People and Indians Children there to learn Languages, and to write and read, and invited us to send some of our Children amongst you, &c.

We must let you know we love our Children too well to send them so great a Way, and the Indians are not inclined to give their Children Learning. We allow it to be good, and we thank you for your Invitation but our Customs differing from yours, you will be so good as to excuse us.

We hope Tarachawagon will be preserved by the good spirit to a good old Age; when he is gone under Ground, it will be then time enough to look out for another; and no doubt but amongst so many Thousands as there are in the World, one such Man may be found, who will serve both parties with the same Fidelity as Tarachawagon does; while he lives there is no Room to complain. In Token of our Thankfulness for your Invitation, we give you this string of Wampum.

Which was received with the usual Ceremony.

Brother Tocarry-hogan,

You told us Yesterday, that since there was now nothing in Controversy between us, and the Affair of the Land was settled to your satisfaction, you would now brighten the Chain of Friendship which hath subsisted between you and us ever since we became Brethren; we are well pleased with the Proposition, and we thank you for it; we also are inclined to renew all Treaties, and keep a good Correspondence with you. You told us further, if ever we should perceive the Chain had contracted any Rust, to let you know, and you would take care to take the Rust out, and preserve it bright. We agree with you in this, and shall, on our Parts, do every thing to preserve a good Understanding, and to live in the same Friendship with you as with our Brother Onas and Assaragoa; in Confirmation whereof, we give you this Belt of Wampum.

On which the usual Cry of Yo-hah was given.

Brethren,

We have now finished our Answer to what you said to us Yesterday, and shall now proceed to Indian Affairs, that are not of so general a Concern.

Brother Assaragoa,

THERE lives a Nation of Indians on the other side of your Country, the Tuscaroraes, who are our Friends, and with whom we hold Correspondence; but the Road between us and them; has been stopped for some Time, on account of the Misbehaviour of some of our Warriors. We have opened a new Road for our Warriors, and they shall keep to that; but as that would be inconvenient for Messengers going to the Tuscaroraes, we desire they may go the old Road. We frequently send Messengers to one another, and shall have more Occasion to do so now that we have concluded a Peace with the Cherikees. To enforce our Request, we give you this string of Wampum.

Which was received with the usual Cry of Approbation.

Brother Assarogoa,

AMONG there Tuscaroraes there live a few Families of the Conoy Indians, who are desirous to leave them, and to remove to the rest of their Nation among us, and the straight Road from them to us lies through the Middle of your Country. We desire you will give them free Passage through Virginia, and furnish them with Passes; and, to enforce our Request, we give you this string of Wampum.

Which was received with the usual Cry of Approbation.

Brother Onas, Assaragoa, and Tocarry-hogan,

At the Close of your respective speeches Yesterday, you made us very handsome Presents, and we should return you something suitable to your Generosity; but, alas, we are poor, and shall ever remain so, as long as there are so many Indian Traders among us. Theirs and the white Peoples Cattle have eat up all the Grass, and made Deer scarce. However, we have provided a small Present for you, and tho' some of you gave us more than others, yet, as you are all equally our Brethren, we shall leave it to you to divide it as you please. — And then presented three Bundles of skins, which were received with the usual Ceremony from the three Governments.

We have one Thing further to say, and that is, We heartily recommend Union and a good Agreement between you our Brethren. Never disagree, but preserve a strict Friendship for one another, and thereby you, as well as we, will become the stronger.

Our wise Forefathers established Union and Amity between the Five Nations; this has made us formidable; this has given us great Weight and Authority with our neighbouring Nations.

We are a powerful Confederacy; and, by your observing the same Methods our wise Forefathers have taken, you will acquire fresh strength and Power; therefore whatever befals you, never fall out one with another.

The Governor replied:

The honourable Commissioners of Virginia and Maryland have desired me to speak for them; therefore I, in Behalf of those Governments, as well as of the Province of Pennsylvania, return you Thanks for the many Proofs you have given in your speeches of your Zeal for the service of your Brethren the English, and in particular for your having so early engaged in a Neutrality the several Tribes of Indians in the French Alliance. We do not doubt but you will faithfully discharge your Promises. As to your Presents, we never estimate these Things by their real Worth, but by the Disposition of the Giver. In this Light we accept them with great Pleasure, and put a high Value upon them. We are obliged to you for recommending Peace and good Agreement amongst ourselves. We are all subjests, as well as you, of the Great King beyond the Water; and, in Duty to his Majesty, and from the good Affection we bear to each other, as well as from a Regard to our own Interest, we shall always be inclined to live in Friendship.

Then the Commissioners of Virginia presented the Hundred Pounds in Gold, together with a Paper, containing a Promise to recommend the Six Nations for further Favour to the King; which they received with Yo-hah, and the Paper was given by them to Conrad Weiser to keep for them. The Commissioners likewise promised that their publick Messengers should not be molested in their Passage through Virginia, and that they would prepare Passes for such of the Conoy Indians as were willing to remove to the Northward.

THEN the Commissioners of Maryland presented their Hundred Pounds in Gold, which was likewise received with the Yo-hah.

Canassatego said, We mentioned to you Yesterday the Booty you had taken from the French, and asked you for some of the Rum which we supposed to be Part of it, and you gave us some; but it turned out unfortunately that you gave us it in French Glasses, we now desire you will give us some in English Glasses.

The Governor made answer, We are glad to hear you have such a Dislike for what is French. They cheat you in your Glasses, as well as in every thing else. You must consider we are at a Distance from Williamsburg, Annapolis, and Philadelphia, where our Rum stores are, and that altho' we brought up a good Quantity with us, you have almost drunk it out; but, notwithstanding this, we have enough left to fill our English Glasses, and will shew the Difference between the Narrowness of the French, and the Generosity of you: Brethren the English towards you.

The Indians gave, in their Order five Yo-hahs; and the honourable Governor and Commissioners calling for some Rum, and some middle sized Wine Glasses, drank Health to the Great King of England and the Six Nations, and put an End to the Treaty by three loud Huzzah's, in which all the Company joined.

In the Evening the Governor went to take his Leave of the Indians, and, presenting them with a string of Wampum, he told them, that was in return for one he had received of them, with a Message to desire the Governor of Virginia to suffer their Warriors to go through Virginia unmolested, which was rendered unnecessary by the present Treaty.

Then, presenting them with another string of Wampum, he told them, that was in return for theirs, praying him, that as they had taken away one Part of Conrad Weiser's Beard, which frightened their Children, he would please to take away the other, which he had ordered to be done.

The Indians received these two strings of Wampum with the usual Yo-hah.

The Governor then asked them, what was the Reason that more of the Shawanaes, from their Town on Hohio, were not at the Treaty? But seeing that it would require a Council in Form, and perhaps another Day to give an Answer, he desired they would give an Answer to Conrad Weiser upon the Road on their Return home, for he was to set out for Philadelphia the next Morning.

Canassatego in Conclusion spoke as follows:

We have been hindered, by a great deal of Business, from waiting on you, to have some private Conversation with you, chiefly to enquire after the Healths of Onas beyond the Water; we desire you will tell them, we have a grateful sense of all their Kindnesses for the Indians. Brother Onas told us, when he went away, he would not stay long from us; we think it is a great While, and want to know when we may expect him, and desire, when you write, you will recommend us heartily to him; which the Governor promised to do, and then took his Leave of them.

The Commissioners of Virginia gave Conassatego a scarlet Camblet Coat, and took their Leave of them in Form, and at the same time delivered the Passes to them, according to their Request.

TheCommissioners of Maryland presented Gacbradodow with a broad Gold-laced Hat, and took their Leave of them in the same Manner.

A true Copy, compared by Richard Peters, secry.

THE END